철원출장안마ღ예약⊙철원불알 마사지(철원서양 마사지 토렌트)┸(철원안마방 나무)◘철원사타구니 마사지◦철원타이마사지 꿀팁η철원타이 마사지 썰┆철원안마방 사정ヘ철원미금역 안마방

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

온라인카지노
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

철원출장안마╍예약♛철원불알 마사지(철원창원 안마방 후기)♪(철원복부 마사지)↘철원마사지 3만원♦철원lovegom0철원아줌마 안마방✲철원안마방 야동┘철원동래 안마방

The governments of more than 190 nations 충주예약 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

철원출장안마▧예약금없는출장샵╜철원불알 마사지(철원울산 삼산동 안마방)◦(철원안마방 아영이 토렌트)☼철원대딸방ν철원유성 안마방♩철원인천 출장 마사지◣철원군포 안마방↙철원생리통 완화 마사지

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

철원출장안마✖예약금없는출장샵┧철원불알 마사지(철원콜걸추천)◈(철원만남)⇛철원필승 안마방✤철원모텔 콜ヤ철원부천 만남オ철원안마방 번호↗철원전립선 마사지 썰

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories wonderlend.xyz . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

철원출장안마➥24시출장샵♡철원불알 마사지(철원부산 하단 출장)フ(철원궐동 안마방)ネ철원한국 마사지エ철원에스코트 모델オ철원유부녀 마사지✦철원상무지구 마사지➚철원모텔 출장안마

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 청주영통 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

철원출장안마⇊24시출장샵☀철원불알 마사지(철원하이퐁 마사지)█(철원출장마사지)♣철원아쿠아 마사지 젤♦철원천안 유흥╚철원러브젤 마사지✏철원군산 터미널 모텔⇛철원제주 안마방

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 군산출장안마 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

철원출장안마철원수원역 마사지

  • 인천제기동 안마방
  • 철원안마방 몰카 토렌트
  • 철원출장안마
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    철원출장안마큐24시출장샵█철원불알 마사지(철원호치민 리버티 마사지 가격)☀(철원전주 마사지 클럽)▷철원베트남 안마방☟철원천안 출장♔철원안마방 나이↕철원검단 안마방⇢철원밀양 안마방

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 보령러시아 안마방 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 울산출장안마 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    undersite.xyz
    양주논산 안마방 전주출장샵 진안폼롤러 마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 대전출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    철원출장안마⇢예약금없는출장샵▧철원불알 마사지(철원화곡동 안마방)↟(철원전립선 마사지 하는 법)➷철원의정부 모텔 추천ム철원일본식 안마방↟철원군산 마사지◥철원출장샵콜걸┨철원온양 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 강원도대전복합터미널 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    철원출장안마☀예약금없는출장샵➛철원불알 마사지(철원발 마사지)✡(철원안마방 발기)↑철원종아리 마사지⇠철원아산 마사지♝철원출장안마↪철원세븐 상추 안마방⇪철원부평 마사지 샵

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 대전출장샵 .

    과천가산동 안마방
    담양안마방 알바 단속 평택출장샵 울산광주 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    철원출장안마↫출장부르는법☏철원불알 마사지(철원트레이너 마사지)↑(철원새로운 안마방 아가씨)ヌ철원자궁 마사지フ철원안마방 와꾸◇철원일본 마사지 tumblrβ철원수원 태국 마사지☼철원서현 안마방

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 원주출장샵 .

    철원출장안마▄24시출장샵↓철원불알 마사지(철원타이마사지 팁 서비스)▽(철원역곡 마사지)↿철원원룸 출장☐철원안마방 알바 구하는법δ철원조치원 마사지フ철원출장λ철원한대앞 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 광주출장안마 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 구미페니스 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    철원출장안마☈예약╕철원불알 마사지(철원24시간 마사지)▧(철원하드코어 안마방)♥철원림프 마사지モ철원아프리카 마사지╓철원타이 마사지 후기★철원동암역 마사지⇚철원안마방 경찰

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    철원출장안마↫출장부르는법╄철원불알 마사지(철원일본마사지)♝(철원sod 마사지)◑철원안마방 키스☏철원상동 안마방♥철원고딩 마사지☯철원광주 대딸방☐철원송도 안마방

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 산청안구 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 원주출장샵 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 카지노사이트 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 무안안마방 엄마 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 카지노사이트 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    철원출장안마┷예약금없는출장샵λ철원불알 마사지(철원전립선 마사지 후기)┯(철원쿠알라룸푸르 마사지)✔철원일산 여관↩철원상하이 마사지☃철원귀 마사지★철원장안동 마사지┄철원문정동 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 대구출장샵 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 천안출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 창원출장샵 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    철원출장안마ロ예약ナ철원불알 마사지(철원마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ)↞(철원구미 모텔 추천)⇩철원사천 안마방➼철원태국 마사지◆철원구로디지털단지 마사지▦철원해운대 출장╬ 철원안마방 요도염

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    경산인천 안마방
    군산출장안마 진해선릉역 안마방 진주출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    철원출장안마⇪24시출장샵➹철원불알 마사지(철원엘프 마사지)ェ(철원퇴폐)﹃철원중국마사지 후기↑철원안마방 번호▥철원태국 전립선 마사지♦철원푸켓 크리스틴 마사지⇤철원정읍 안마방

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.철원출장안마철원파타야 마사지▌철원나주 안마방☜(철원호치민 호텔 마사지)철원라페 안마방↠철원안마방 영업시간♠철원모텔 콜▣철원lovegom▨카지노사이트출장부르는법철원스포츠 마사지➹철원일본놈 길거리 한국여자 꼬셔사 마사지┡[철원박시연 마사지]철원y존 마사지✡철원신림 마사지╙철원국산 마사지┑철원안마방 국산╘철원출장안마동두천출장샵예약철원대전 유성 안마방⇖철원제천 안마방❄(철원안마방 썰만화)철원전립선 마사지 부작용♡철원안마방 아영이 토렌트✓철원마카오 마사지►철원안마방 아다☻철원여교사 마사지┍철원다이소 마사지☪「철원미약 마사지」철원보라카이 마사지↔철원출장 선입금⇚철원라오스 마사지 2차リ철원판교 마사지✦철원목포 여관➹철원상록수역 안마방1「철원안마방 성병」철원부산 출장┖철원울산 명촌 안마방☣철원손 마사지▌철원제천 안마방✥철원속초 모텔 추천◢철원노모 마사지⊿〔철원아로마 마사지 부작용〕철원기흥구청 마사지ⓞ철원포항 아가씨▧철원국 안마방✦철원부산 모텔 촌♨출장부르는법수원광주 안마방 추천24시출장샵철원세부 마사지 엑스트라↔철원출장안마ネ(철원시각장애인 마사지)철원안마방 젤╎철원일본식 마사지☻철원천안 안마방 후기↿철원안산 안마방 추천⇣철원출장안마철원출장안마울산출장샵철원모텔 tumblr철원안마방 짜파게티철원마사지 테라피철원부산 해운대 안마방철원출장안마철원서울대입구 안마방♦철원익산 마사지✿〖철원아비게일 마사지 토렌트〗철원응암동 마사지◦철원독산동 마사지▨철원카톡 출장♫철원범계역 안마방υ인제대구 아로마 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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