순천출장샵•24시출장샵⇌순천판상근 마사지〖순천보지 마사지〗╈(순천호치민 리버티 마사지 가격)┘순천신림 안마방█순천길동 안마방⇛순천예약금 없는 출장◇순천방콕 마사지└순천상인동 안마방

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

순천출장샵➽출장부르는법カ순천판상근 마사지〖순천의정부 대딸방〗➛(순천지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성전용 마사지)ヘ순천모텔 여자╂순천안마방 팁►순천아로마 마사지 부작용⇀순천얼굴 림프 마사지▥순천용현동 마사지

The governments of more than 190 nations 무주마사지 발기 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

순천출장샵➦예약금없는출장샵↭순천판상근 마사지〖순천출장최고시〗↷(순천마사지 서비스)‿순천폰섹 녹음┷순천안마방 썰►순천마사지 망가★순천마사지 배우기♚순천얼굴 마사지 기계

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

순천출장샵✲출장부르는법┠순천판상근 마사지〖순천안마방 야간〗♪(순천안성 안마방)⇊순천금호동 안마방リ순천중국 마사지☍순천에가오 마사지♥순천전화 tumblr▀순천승모근 마사지

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 카지노사이트 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

순천출장샵⇩24시출장샵✙순천판상근 마사지〖순천육덕 마사지〗⇪(순천부평 마사지)«순천동해 마사지⇞순천출장만족보장┪순천천안 유흥↕순천대만 호텔 마사지☌순천조건 출장

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 김제안마방 비비기 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

순천출장샵♪출장부르는법┟순천판상근 마사지〖순천마사지 흥분〗☁(순천진주시 안마방)▣순천안마방 요도염➧순천출장 사기£순천출장샵예약☌순천안마방 위치✤순천국산 마사지

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 온라인카지노 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

순천출장샵순천안마방 투샷 가격

  • 남양주목욕탕 마사지
  • 순천안마방 영상
  • 순천출장샵
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    순천출장샵ユ예약금없는출장샵■순천판상근 마사지〖순천안마방 질내사정〗✈(순천안마방 할머니)╯순천모유수유 마사지☪순천중국식 마사지╊순천마사지 영어✑순천장안동 마사지▧순천이종찬 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 제주도오야넷 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 천안출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    봉화화정 안마방 카지노사이트 진도제주시 안마방
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, jasulloc.xyz – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    순천출장샵✿예약금없는출장샵◐순천판상근 마사지〖순천군포 안마방〗0(순천사상 출장)╋순천여성 전용 마사지◊순천출장 마사지α순천여성 전용 마사지☀순천안마방 업소⇁순천부산 모텔 출장

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 산청한국 안마방 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    순천출장샵♈출장부르는법╭순천판상근 마사지〖순천제주도 안마방〗✐(순천홍성 안마방)⇪순천광주 여관✔순천인천 안마방 후기☈순천통영 안마방↶순천마송 안마방⇣순천천안 대딸방

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 카지노사이트 .

    성주영등포구청 안마방
    충청남도얼굴 림프 마사지 cpod.xyz 목포연동 안마방
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    순천출장샵ⓥ출장부르는법ღ순천판상근 마사지〖순천av 에이미〗↶(순천아다 안마방)❥순천안마방 내상⇗순천태국 전립선 마사지♪순천부산 하단 출장☲순천대림동 마사지◄순천일산 모텔 가격

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 부산출장안마 .

    순천출장샵╎24시출장샵╗순천판상근 마사지〖순천출장안마야한곳〗ο(순천안마방 tumblr)♥순천울산 안마방☻순천부산 서면 출장↿순천텀블러 안마방♀순천tumblr 마사지⇂순천지행 안마방

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 카지노사이트 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 서울 서면 안마방 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    순천출장샵⇩예약금없는출장샵[순천판상근 마사지〖순천독산동 마사지〗▽(순천구래동 마사지)ナ순천안성 안마방α순천대구 마사지♂순천야동 안마방θ순천여인숙 여자✄순천정준하 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    순천출장샵♣예약☆순천판상근 마사지〖순천원주 안마방〗◎(순천영등포구청 안마방)☎순천마사지 효과►순천마사지 레전드 품번ロ순천후두 마사지☁순천창동 안마방♖순천성인마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 양양의정부 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The dhc2016.xyz , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 포항출장샵 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 진해불광 여관 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 카지노사이트 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    순천출장샵┫24시출장샵♠순천판상근 마사지〖순천천안 퇴폐〗⇂(순천v라인 마사지)╠ 순천퇴폐⇌순천만수동 마사지┿순천양산 젤리 마사지▽순천클리토리스 마사지フ순천부산 출장

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 바카라사이트 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 천안출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and gogotown.xyz showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    순천출장샵┸예약금없는출장샵✪순천판상근 마사지〖순천연산 안마방〗┲(순천삿포로 안마방)セ순천구글재펜└순천모텔 tumblr♟순천길동 안마방╔순천출장아가씨┆순천마사지 모음

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    천안얼굴 경락 마사지
    원주출장샵 나주강남 전립선 마사지 천안출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    순천출장샵▧ 예약금없는출장샵↽순천판상근 마사지〖순천섹스 마사지〗┈(순천코스프레 안마방)⊙순천안마방 엄마→순천안마방 알바 후기▶순천노량진 안마방⇚순천체코 마사지↨순천신당동 안마방

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.순천출장샵순천간석오거리 안마방タ순천안마방 사정↮(순천광양 안마방)순천영통 마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ⇚순천판교 마사지┒순천베이징 마사지▨순천젖몸살 마사지♥카지노사이트예약순천태백 마사지☏순천모텔 tumblr✲〔순천무릎 마사지〕순천남성전용 마사지→순천아로마 마사지 부작용⇞순천석계 마사지╤순천fc2 일본 마사지↼순천출장샵괴산콧대 높이는 마사지순천싸인볼 마사지△순천태국여행 마사지█〈순천마사지 섹스〉순천익산 모텔 가격╚순천안마방 비용⇂순천지저분한 색스 나고야 여성 전용 마사지➛순천눈붓기빼는 마사지☆순천안마방 발기♂순천가슴 마사지↔{순천안마방 나이대}순천별내 마사지♣순천스포츠 마사지 자격증♀순천해변 마사지ψ순천베트남 마사지 후기⇂순천안마방 김치남✥순천양배추 안마방ル﹝순천실제 안마방﹞순천에이스 안마방☂순천출장샵예약⇦순천에스코트 모델➷순천용암동 모텔↤순천sod 마사지┎순천해운대 안마방£『순천필승 안마방』순천군포 안마방▪순천타이마사지❤순천안마방 긴밤◙순천마사지 강좌✣24시출장샵서울 파주 마사지예약금없는출장샵순천부산 해운대 안마방☴순천서혜부 마사지♨﹛순천분당 마사지 추천﹜순천아침 안마방♀순천마사지 효능↧순천안마방 얼마냐◢순천천안 안마방 후기╰순천출장샵순천출장샵천안출장샵순천러시아 안마방순천아내 마사지순천한물간 연예인 안마방순천아산 마사지순천출장샵순천부산역 모텔 가격♙순천의정부 모텔 추천♭﹝순천오송 마사지﹞순천니시미야 코노미 마사지◑순천안마방 토렌트♝순천안마방 밥◈순천마석 안마방➶서울정자역 안마방

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.