예약금없는출장샵
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  • 함평출장맛사지큐출장부르는법☣함평포항 아가씨《함평콜걸》✕{함평해외 안마방}♮함평남부터미널 안마방✈함평부산 출장┵함평안마방 빡촌⇙함평한대앞 마사지☱함평여고생 마사지

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    카지노사이트
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    함평출장맛사지◎24시출장샵⇩함평포항 아가씨《함평안마방 코스》⇦{함평안마방 시스템}✎함평마사지 카운터 알바▤함평상록수역 안마방▒함평분당 마사지 추천◦함평대전 모텔 다방☂함평안마방 단속 확률

    The governments of more than 190 nations 부산마사지 근육 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    함평출장맛사지ψ예약✈함평포항 아가씨《함평얼굴 경락 마사지》↬{함평안마방 전화번호 저장}レ함평서울 출장샵♫함평대구 안마방ネ함평마사지 av☀함평상봉역 안마방ェ함평출장 만남 카톡

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    함평출장맛사지◑24시출장샵➼함평포항 아가씨《함평영등포구청 안마방》▶{함평자지 마사지}◢함평프리마호텔 마사지●함평세부 안마방►함평종아리 근육 마사지✆함평부산 마사지ρ함평야탑 마사지

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 전주출장안마 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    함평출장맛사지▪출장부르는법⇡함평포항 아가씨《함평눈붓기빼는 마사지》⇖{함평스웨디시 마사지 단점}╓함평송파 마사지★함평오피 투샷┛함평출장 후기↶함평아로마마사지 팁ζ함평주안 마사지

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 순천강남역 안마방 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    함평출장맛사지♡출장부르는법✡함평포항 아가씨《함평오창 마사지》ヨ{함평목포 안마방}↕함평에이미 안마방☼함평창원 안마방 후기►함평척추 마사지⇔함평인계동 안마방⇈함평하이퐁 마사지

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 온라인카지노 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    함평출장맛사지함평안마방 물다이 몰카

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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    함평출장맛사지▄출장부르는법⇩함평포항 아가씨《함평마사지 발기》ク{함평방콕 마사지 추천}┙함평타이마사지 서비스╝함평안마방 사정✔함평하노이 vip 마사지㍿함평범계 안마방╬함평코타키나발루 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 동두천태국 현지 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 평택출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    카지노사이트
    진해귀 마사지 mycamp.xyz 울진강동구 마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 카지노사이트 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    함평출장맛사지✍출장부르는법ワ함평포항 아가씨《함평출장서비스보장》┹{함평대전복합터미널 마사지}➸함평홍콩 마사지┠함평막탄 마사지♔함평양재역 마사지⊙함평안마방 미시◑함평타이 마사지 가격

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 수원안마방 런베스트 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    함평출장맛사지↪예약금없는출장샵╍함평포항 아가씨《함평출장만족보장》↖{함평역삼역 안마방}╈함평안마π함평안마방 무한➵함평김해 장유 안마방ナ함평간석동 안마방▪함평출장연애인급

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 평택출장샵 .

    파주용원 안마방
    안동남포동 안마방 카지노사이트 상주불알 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    함평출장맛사지☁출장부르는법♖함평포항 아가씨《함평타이마사지 팁 서비스》◑{함평성대 마사지}↯함평안마방 실장☽함평대구 아로마 마사지⇚함평창원 마사지✗함평감성 마사지☋함평산호동 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 대전출장샵 .

    함평출장맛사지⇎24시출장샵┃함평포항 아가씨《함평해운대 마사지》╬{함평병점 안마방}⇁함평안양역 안마방W함평1인 마사지⇛함평동대문구 안마방ム함평수안보 마사지➳함평홈 타이 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And tongyanglife.xyz .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 양평두통 완화 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    함평출장맛사지♝출장부르는법♐함평포항 아가씨《함평김해 모텔 추천》❈{함평안마방 알바 단속}⇄함평스포츠 마사지 자격증➵함평안마방 경험✔함평안마방 모음§함평여주 모텔 추천▫함평안마방 녹음

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    함평출장맛사지↔예약ル함평포항 아가씨《함평태국 마사지 가격》♛{함평출장외국인}ナ함평태국여행 마사지↺함평대전복합터미널 마사지θ함평안양 마사지■함평중국모델 슈가0함평안마방 휴게텔

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 아산안마방 위키 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 진주출장샵 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 진주출장안마 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 대구마사지 마무리 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 대구출장샵 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    함평출장맛사지→예약금없는출장샵⇩함평포항 아가씨《함평평택 여관》┓{함평구미 모텔 가격}§함평고추 마사지╰함평안마방 감염メ함평포천 마사지➠함평정준하 마사지▪함평익산 모텔 가격

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, airportservice.xyz , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 전주출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 카지노사이트 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    함평출장맛사지ν예약금없는출장샵┡함평포항 아가씨《함평서울대입구 마사지》↤{함평출장 마사지 후기}☇함평대전 마사지 추천↠함평범일동 마사지ユ함평안양역 안마방⊙함평av 마사지☜함평에이미 안마방

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    부천러브어게인 만남
    온라인카지노.xyz 화순원룸 출장 구미출장안마
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    함평출장맛사지►24시출장샵♦함평포항 아가씨《함평안마방 20대》╘{함평주안 여관}⊙함평전주 모텔 가격┽함평산본 마사지 후기유함평영종도 안마방┛함평천안 만남⇙함평베트남 마사지 가격

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.함평출장맛사지함평마사지 종류☳함평sod 마사지┤{함평서울대 안마방}함평한국 안마방〓함평안마방 용어⇌함평양평 안마방㍿함평림프 마사지ウ구미출장안마출장부르는법함평출장아가씨┏함평안마방 엉덩이★〈함평커플 마사지 방법〉함평방이동 안마방◐함평홍성 안마방ホ함평출장마사지★함평검빛 경마 검색▪함평출장맛사지대구외국인출장만남함평서양 안마방╇함평부산대 안마방➳{함평강릉 안마방}함평안마방 출근부☂함평안마방 아영이 토렌트✚함평출장[함평출장 조건►함평타이 마사지 팁⇟함평부산 여관 가격●(함평안마방 아다)함평안마방 위험✓함평출장연애인급☢함평콜걸출장안마♥함평거제 안마방┵함평서귀포 마사지◥함평딥티슈 마사지┐〔함평단발 안마방〕함평안마방 전화┨함평논산 안마방☝함평텔레그램 야동♧함평출장 선입금╤함평전민동 마사지✑함평여수 안마방⇖{함평안마방 녹음}함평안마방 밥◎함평전립선 마사지 부작용★함평초대남 마사지┃함평여성 전용 마사지╈출장부르는법영월전주 마사지 클럽예약금없는출장샵함평출장색시미녀언니ξ함평fc2 한국 마사지•{함평뱃살 마사지}함평노원 마사지♧함평전주 마사지 클럽⇂함평동두천 마사지┪함평콧대 마사지 효과﹌함평출장맛사지함평출장맛사지군산출장샵함평삼산동 출장함평동래 마사지함평동해 안마방함평안마방 통화기록함평출장맛사지함평요방형근 마사지“함평안마방 카드사용⇤(함평방콕 에스코트)함평제주 안마방↢함평마사지 하다가✁함평승무원 마사지➳함평다낭 붐붐 마사지ρ김제광주 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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